Ten years ago, a search for real estate would have started in the office of a local real estate agent or by just driving around town. You would spend an afternoon flipping through pages of active property listings from the local Multiple Listing Service (MLS) at the agent’s office. After choosing properties of interest, you would spend many weeks touring each property until you found the right one. Finding market data to enable you to assess the asking price would take more time and a lot more driving, and you still might not see all the information you need to get comfortable with a fair market value.
Today, most property searches start on the Internet. A keyword search on Google by location will likely get you thousands of results. If you spot a property of interest on a real estate website, you can typically view photos online and maybe even take a virtual tour. You can then check other Websites, such as the local county assessor, to get an idea of the property’s value, see what the current owner paid for the property, check the real estate taxes, get census data, school information, and even check out what shops are within walking distance-all without leaving your house!
While Internet resources are convenient and helpful, using them properly can be challenging because of the volume of information and the difficulty verifying its accuracy. At the time of writing, a search of “Denver real estate” returned 2,670,000 Web sites. Even a neighborhood-specific search for real estate can easily return thousands of Web sites. With so many resources online, how does an investor effectively use them without getting bogged down or winding up with incomplete or bad information? Believe it or not, understanding how real estate works offline makes it easier to understand online real estate information and strategies.
The Business of Real Estate
Real estate is typically bought and sold either through a licensed real estate agent or directly by the owner. The vast majority is bought and sold through real estate brokers. (We use “agent” and “broker” to refer to the same professional.) This is due to their real estate knowledge and experience and, historically, their exclusive access to a database of active properties for sale. Access to this database of property listings provided the most efficient way to search for properties.
The MLS (and CIE)
The database of residential, land, and smaller income-producing properties (including some commercial properties) is commonly called a multiple listing service (MLS). In most cases, only properties listed by member real estate agents can be added to an MLS. The primary purpose of an MLS is to enable the member real estate agents to make offers of compensation to other member agents if they find a buyer for a property.
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This purpose did not include enabling the direct publishing of the MLS information to the public; times change. Today, most MLS information is directly accessible to the public over the Internet in many different forms.
Commercial property listings are also displayed online, but aggregated commercial property information is more elusive. Larger MLSs often operate a commercial information exchange (CIE). A CIE is similar to an MLS, but the agents adding the listings to the database are not required to offer any specific compensation type to the other members. Compensation is negotiated outside the CIE.
Generally, for-sale-by-owner properties cannot be directly added to an MLS and CIE, typically maintained by REALTOR associations. The lack of a managed centralized database can make these properties more difficult to locate. Traditionally, these properties are found by driving around or looking for ads in the local newspaper’s real estate listings. A more efficient way to locate for-sale-by-owner properties is to search for a for-sale-by-owner Web site in the geographic area.
What is a REALTOR? Sometimes, the terms real estate agent and REALTOR are used interchangeably; however, they are not the same. A REALTOR is a licensed real estate agent who is also a member of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS. REALTORS are required to comply with a strict code of ethics and conduct.
MLS and CIE property listing information were historically only available in hard copy and, as we mentioned, only directly available to real estate agents and members of an MLS or CIE. About ten years ago, this valuable property information started to trickle out to the Internet. This trickle is now a flood!
One reason is that most of the 1 million REALTORS have Web sites and varying amounts of the local MLS or CIE property information displayed on them. Another reason is that many non-real estate agent Websites offer real estate information, including for-sale-by-owner sites, foreclosure sites, regional and international listing sites, County assessor sites, and valuation and market information sites. The flood of real estate information to the Internet makes the information more accessible, confusing, and subject to misunderstanding and misuse.
Real Estate Agents
Despite the flood of real estate information on the Internet, most properties are sold directly through agents listing properties in the local MLS or CIE. However, those property listings do not stay local anymore. By its nature, the Internet is a global marketplace, and local MLS and CIE listings are normally disseminated for display on many different Web sites. For example, many go to the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS Web site, http://www.realtor.com, and the local real estate agent’s Web site. Also, the listing may be displayed on the Web site of a local newspaper. In essence, the Internet is just another form of marketing offered by today’s real estate agents, but it has a much broader reach than the old print advertising.